THE DIVINE AND DEMONIACAL NATURES
A marvellous sun has risen, who dispels the illusory form of the world and makes the lotus in the form of non-dualism blossom; I bow to him. This sun in the form of My Master dispels the dark night of ignorance, puts out the stars in the form of knowledge and ignorance and shows to the enlightened men the auspicious day of Self-realisation. When this sun rises, he gives the eye of wisdom and the birds in the form of beings leave their nests in the form of body-consciousness. With the rise of this sun, the bee in the form of the subtle body full of desires, is released from its confinement. This lamp of the world reunites the pair of chakravaka birds (the brahmany geese) in the form of the intellect and knowledge and makes them happy the chakravaka birds who had been trapped in the darkness of ignorance as a result of their being caught in the difficult situation of the incomprehensible words of the scriptures and were lamenting their separation on the two banks of distinction. (1-5) When knowledge dawns the time stolen by the thief in the form of distinction comes to an end and the wayfarers in the path of yoga walk along the way leading to Self-realisation. With the rays of this sun in the form of discrimination, the sun stone in the form of knowledge becomes ignited and burns the forests in the form of worldly affairs. When the rays of this sun fall on the sandy plains of the self. the latter becomes flooded with the mirage in the form of the great miraculous powers (mahasiddhis). When this sun reaches the zenith of Self-realisation in the noon of Brahmic state. then the shadow cast by delusive knowledge in ' the form "I am the body", vanishes (lit remains under his feet) (6-10). When in this state the dark night in the form of Maya ends, then who would remember the dream of world appearance and slumber in the form of false knowledge? When the bliss becomes plentiful in the city in the form of non-dualism, dealings in the form of worldly happiness become slack and what is more, in the light of this sun come the bright days in the form of liberation. When this king of the sky in the form of the Self rises, he does away with the rising and setting along with the directions and. destroying knowledge along with ignorance, he displays the knowledge of the Self which had been covered by them so long. In short, he creates this unique dawn (11-15). Who can see this sun of knowledge, who is beyond day and night and who is a globe of self-illumination without the aid of things that illuminate?
Whatever praise I offer to this sun in the form of consciousness is full of limitations and so I bow to him again and again. In order to praise the great glory of my Master adequately, the intellect has to become identified with the object of its adoration. The articulate speech, vaikhari, along with the inarticulate speeches para, pashyanti and madhyama fade away in praising your good Self who becomes known with the cessation of all empirical knowledge of worldly things, who can be praised adequately only through silence and who is attained only with the elimination of the ego (16-20). If I were to request you to be pleased with the ornate hymns of praise, it will diminish our blissful state of unity. When a poor person coming across the sea of nectar does not know what hospitality should be extended to it and offers it vegetable dishes, that meal should be reckoned as a feast after taking into account the fervour with which it is offered. If someone were to wave the wick-lamp before the sun, he should not think it as a lesser form of worship but view it in the light of his devotion. Who would call it a child, if it knows what is good for it? But the mother feels happy at its ignorant chatter. See if a stream comes to join the Ganga with its dirty water. does the latter tell it to go back? (21-25) The sage Bhrigu kicked Lord Vishnu in the chest; but did not the Lord receive it with satisfaction as honour done to him out of affection? When the sky darkened by the night comes forward to meet the sun, does the sun tell it to go away? Forgive me, O my Master, for attempting to weigh you with the sun in a scale hung on the beam in the form of duality. Please treat me as you treated the Yogis who attained to you through meditation and praised you with Vedic hymns and forgive me. When I long to praise your virtues, do not take it as an umbrage. But in whatever way you take it, I would not stop without satisfying my strong urge to praise you. (26-30) When I started praising your nectar-like gift in the form of the Gita, my strength increased two-fold and fortune smiled upon me. O my Master, my tongue did penance of speaking the truth through many births, as a result of which I landed on the island of the Gita in this sea of worldly existence. The merit which I had specially accumulated so far gave me the ability to sing your praises and discharge its obligation to me. I had entered the forest of life in the commune of death, but I have got out of that wretched state. You extended your grace to me by asking me to describe the Gita, the well-known scripture which has become strong with the conquest of ignorance (31-35). When the goddess of riches visits the house of a poor man, can we call him indigent? If the sun visits the house of darkness as a guest, does not that darkness give light to the whole world? Does not God before whose glory this entire world seems a tiny speck assume a form for his devotee? In that way, my attempt to speak on the Gita is as improbable as the smelling of the sky-flower. But you with your might has made it possible for me. So Jnanadeva says, "I shall, through your grace, explain all the verses in the Gita in an easy and clear way" (36-40).
In the fifteenth chapter, Lord Krishna disclosed clearly the doctrine of the Gita to Arjuna. Just as an expert physician diagnoses a disease afflicting the body, so the Lord described this world in a flowery language with the simile of the Ashvattha tree. There the Lord explained in clear terms that the imperishable purusha, the consciousness, being joined to limiting conditions (upadhi) became embodied. Then the pure Self was disclosed clearly as the Supreme Person. Next he explained .in clear terms how knowledge is the best internal means for the attainment of the Supreme Self (41-45). So there is nothing left which is worth speaking about. But there remained the strong bond between the preceptor and the disciple. Besides all the things narrated in the previous chapter were fully appreciated by the wise, but the desires of seekers remained unfulfilled. In the previous chapter the Lord of the three worlds has talked about the discerning person, all-knowing and the greatest among his devotees, who has attained him through knowledge and has also described the importance of knowledge in the last verse of the chapter. He said, "When my devotee gulps down the worldly existence through this knowledge and attains to my vision, he secures a place of honour in the kingdom of bliss" (46-50). He added that there is no other effective means to the attainment of Brahman and that this knowledge is the king among all means. So the seekers waved their very lives before this knowledge with great regard and pleasure. Now it is a sign of love that the more you like a subject, the more you think about it. So those seekers who had not attained knowledge were anxious to know how to secure it and after securing it, how to retain it. They, therefore, felt it necessary to know how to secure this divine knowledge and how to increase it, (51-55) why that knowledge cannot be secured and even if secured whether there is something hostile to knowledge which leads one astray. Then the seekers longed to give up those things which are hostile to knowledge and adopt all means which were beneficial for the attainment of knowledge. The Lord will now speak to fulfil that desire and to describe the glory of the divine endowment, which conduces to knowledge and also enhances the peace of the mind. He will also explain the terrible form of the demoniacal endowment, which lends support to passion and hatred through the knowledge of the sense-objects. (56-60) The subject of these two endowments, which respectively lead to desirable and undesirable actions, was mentioned briefly in the Nineth Chapter and should have been treated fully there. But this could not be done as other subjects intervened, and so the Lord will broach the same subject now. This discourse is contained in the Sixteenth Chapter and should be treated as a detailed exposition of the former statement. Thus there are two endowments, of which one is conducive to knowledge, and the other detrimental to it. Now first listen to the description of the divine endowment, which keeps one company in his march towards liberation and is like a torch in the form of duty which shows the way in the dark night of delusion. (61-65) If one gathers at one place many things which mutually support one another, such a collection of things is called an endowment. It is called divine endowment if it promotes happiness and is secured by a person only through good luck.
For this reason, O dear Arjuna, one who has solicitude for his own good, should not disregard the dictates of the Vedas (451-455). A loyal wife wins the favour of her husband and thereby secures her good. The disciple who moulds his conduct keeping in mind the instruction of the preceptor, attains to the knowledge of the self. Moreover, if a person has hidden his treasure in a dark place, he has to take a lamp to get it back. In the same way, if one desires to master the four ends of life, he must show profound reverence to the rules laid down by the scriptures and codes of law (smriti). He should renounce what is forbidden by them, and even if it be a kingdom, he should treat it as a blade of grass. One should follow that is enjoined by the scriptures, even though it be deadly poison (456-460). How can one who has such implicit faith in the Vedas ever come to evil? O Arjuna, there is no mother in this world like the scripture who protects her child from evil and promotes its well-being. Therefore do not forsake this motherly scripture, which leads one to the attainment of the supreme and devote yourself to her with single-mindedness. O Arjuna, you are born in this world on the strength of your past deeds to demonstrate the fruitful message of the scriptures and you have won for yourself the nickname 'follower of Dharma' (meaning also younger brother of Yudhishthira who is also known as Dharma). You should, therefore, not do anything contrary to the Vedic precepts (461-465). You should judge the propriety or otherwise of your actions with sole reference to the scriptures. You should shun whatever is improper and carry out sincerely your duties to their completion. O talented Arjuna, you now possess the signet-ring in the form of intellect, which is held as valid all over the world. You have, therefore, become fit to guide the world by your conduct on the righteous path.
In this way, the lord explained to Arjuna the characteristics of the demonical nature and also the way of escape from it. Now Arjuna will question the lord on the nature of faith; please listen to it attentively (466-40). I am telling you though the grace of Shri Nivrittinatha what Sanjaya said to Dhritarashtra at the behest of sage Vyasa. O saints, if you look at me with your kind glances, I shall be as great as yourselves. Shri Jnanadeva says, kindly show me the favour of your attention so that I shall achieve my cherished object (471-475).